The Haudenosaunee Longhouse
The Longhouse had doors at each end of the structure which were covered with an animal hide to keep out the cold and the weather. Doors could also be inserted in the sidewalls as well. Each longhouse had a clan symbol placed over the doorway.
In the book Orenda, by Joseph Boyden, it is often noted by the Jesuit missionary that the interior of the longhouse was smoky and dark. The reason for this was that the longhouses would have fireplaces placed in the center of the building providing warmth to all who were inside while also making the interior quite smokey. Anyone who has been through a northeastern North America winter will know how important this warmth would be. Holes were cut above these fires to let out smoke, but such smoke holes could also let in rain and snow.
Five or six ventilation openings could be cut in the roof at intervals in the longhouse. These were called the smoke pipe to allow the smoke to dissipate from the ceiling of the longhouse.
On average a typical longhouse was about 80 feet long and 18 feet wide and could stand 18 feet high (24.4m by 5.5m by 5.5 m) and was meant to house up to twenty or more families. Palisades were built around a group of dwellings for protection and these could stand 14 to 16 ft (4.3 to 4.9 m) high, keeping the longhouse village safe.